Physics of Immortality, The - Tipler F. Система Orphus

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The Physics of Immortality was originally published in hardcover by Doubleday in 1994. The Anchor Books edition is published by arrangement with Doubleday.

Some of the material in the Appendix for Scientists is based on articles the author has published in various scientific journals over the last seventeen years:

“Black Holes in Closed Universes.” Nature 270: 500–501 (1977); “Causally Symmetric Spacetimes.” Journal of Mathematical Physics 18: 1568–1573 (1977); “General Relativity, Thermodynamics, and the Poincard Cycle.” Nature 280: 203–205 (1979); “Maximal Hypersurfaces and Foliations of Constant Mean Curvature in General Relativity.” (with J. E. Marsden) Physics Reports 66: 109–139 (1980); “Penrose Diagrams for the Einstein, Eddington-Lemaitre, Eddington-Lemaitre-Bondi, and anti-De Sitter Universes.” Journal of Mathematical Physics 27: 559–561 (1985); “Closed Universes: Their Future Evolution and Final State.” (with John D. Barrow) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 219: 395–402 (1985); “The Closed Universe Recollapse Conjecture.” (with John D. Barrow and Gregory G. Galloway) Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 223: 835–844 (1986); “Interpreting the Wave Function of the Universe.” Physics Reports 137: 231–275 (1986); “Cosmological Limits on Computation,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics 25: 617–661 (1986); “Achieved Spacetime Infinity.” Nature 325: 201–202 (1987); “Action Principles in Nature.” (with John D. Barrow) Nature 331: 31–34 (1988); “The Omega Point as Eschaton: Answers to Pannenberg's Questions for Scientists.” Zygon 24: 217–253 (1989); “The Ultimate Fate of Life in Universes Which Undergo Inflation.” Physics Letters B286, 36–43 (1992); “A New Condition Implying the Existence of a Constant Mean Curvature Foliation” appeared in a 1993 Conference Proceedings published by Cambridge University Press; “God in the Equations.” Nature 369: 198 (1994).

Book Design by Claire Naylon Vaccaro

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Tipler, Frank J.

The physics of immortality : modern cosmology, God and the

resurrection of the dead / Frank J. Tipler.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

1. Cosmology. 2. Physics — Religious aspects. 3. Omega point.

4. Eschatology. 5. God — Proof, Cosmological. I. Title.

QB981.T57 1995

215'.3-dc20 95–9881


isbn 0–385–46799-0

Copyright © 1994 by Frank J. Tipler

All Rights Reserved

Printed in the United States of America

First Anchor Books Edition: September 1995

7 9 10 8


To the grandparents of my wife, the great-grandparents of my children


Shot to death by the Nazis in 1939, for the crime of being Poles.


Tortured by the Gestapo, and died shortly thereafter.

All three being citizens of Torun, Poland, the birthplace of


Who died in the hope of the Universal Resurrection,

and whose hope, as I shall show in this book, will be fulfilled near

the End of Time.


Eternal must that progress be

Which Nature through futurity

Decrees the human soul;

Capacious still, it still improves

As through the abyss of time it moves,

Or endless ages roll

Its knowledge grows by every change;

Through science vast we see it range

That none may here acquire;

The pause of death must come between

And Nature gives another scene

More brilliant, to admire.

Thus decomposed, or recombined,

To slow perfection moves the mind

And may at last attain

A nearer rank with that first cause

Which distant, though it ever draws,

Unequalled must remain.

from “On the Powers of the Human Understanding”

by Philip Freneau (1752–1832),

known as the

“poet of the American Revolution”

and as the

“founder of American poetry”



It is quite rare in this day and age to come across a book proclaiming the unification of science and religion. It is unique to find a book asserting, as I shall in the body of this book, that theology is a branch of physics, that physicists can infer by calculation the existence of God and the likelihood of the resurrection of the dead to eternal life in exactly the same way as physicists calculate the properties of the electron. One naturally wonders if I am serious.

I am quite serious. But I am as surprised as the reader. When I began my career as a cosmologist some twenty years ago, I was a convinced atheist. I never in my wildest dreams imagined that one day I would be writing a book purporting to show that the central claims of Judeo-Christian theology are in fact true, that these claims are straightforward deductions of the laws of physics as we now understand them. I have been forced into these conclusions by the inexorable logic of my own special branch of physics.

I obtained my Ph.D. in 1976 in the area of global general relativity. This branch of physics, created in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the great British physicists Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, enables us to draw very deep and very general conclusions about the structure of space and time by looking at the universe in its totality in both time and space.

Now one might think that such a view of the universe is the view  {x}  of all cosmologists, but this is not so. Almost all cosmologists concern themselves with what is called the visible universe: that part of the universe whose past can be seen from Earth. Since the universe came into existence about 20 billion years ago, and since nothing can go faster than light, we can in principle see the pasts of galaxies which are now about 20 billion light-years away: the visible universe is thus a sphere about 20 billion light-years across.

But to anyone regarding the universe in its total extent in space and especially in time, it is immediately obvious that the visible universe is only a tiny fraction of reality. The universe is almost certain to continue to exist for another 100 billion years, and probably much longer. In other words, the part of the spacetime which can be seen from Earth is relatively insignificant in comparison to the part which lies in our future; we humans have come into existence in the very early childhood of the cosmos. Hence, as a global relativist, I realized that I would have to study the future of the universe, since the future comprises almost all of space and time. It is not possible to look at the universe in its totality in both time and space while ignoring almost all of space and time.

But how does one calculate the behavior of the universe in the far future? My colleague, the British astrophysicist John D. Barrow, has proved that this behavior would be chaotic, which means that the evolution of the universe becomes unpredictable after a time short in cosmological scales. It is now known that chaotic evolution is common on all astronomical scales: on the scale of the solar system, on the scale of the galaxies, on the scale of clusters of galaxies, and so on up to the scale of the entire universe itself.

Furthermore, a simple calculation shows that, since chaos occurs on all size scales, intelligent beings would be able to use these instabilities to manipulate the motion of matter on the very largest scales. In other words, the possible presence and actions of intelligent life cannot be ignored in any calculation of the evolution of the far future. This would appear to make calculation of the universe's future even more impossible, since the behavior of humans is notoriously unpredictable. We shall have chaos in the society of intelligent living beings added to the chaos in the Einstein equations.

Interestingly, this is not true. The two sources of chaos cancel out.  {xi}  What happens is that intelligent life, in order to survive, must use the chaos in the physical laws to force the evolution of the universe into one of a very restricted number of possible futures. Its very survival requires life to impose order on the universe. Taking biology into account allows us to do the physics of the far future.

But in order to do calculations, it is essential to translate basic biological concepts into physics language. It is necessary to regard all forms of life — including human beings — as subject to the same laws of physics as electrons and atoms. I therefore regard a human being as nothing but a particular type of machine, the human brain as nothing but an information processing device, the human soul as nothing but a program being run on a computer called the brain. Further, all possible types of living beings, intelligent or not, are of the same nature, and subject to the same laws of physics as constrain all information processing devices.

Many people find this extreme reductionist approach to life not only wrong but repulsive. I think, however, that their hostility is not to reductionism as such but to what they mistakenly believe to be consequences of reductionism. They are convinced that regarding people as machines would mean that people would have no “free will,” that there is no hope of individual life after death, that life itself is a totally insignificant part of “an overwhelmingly hostile universe.”1

In fact, the exact opposite is true. The very fact that humans are machines of a very special sort allows us to prove that we humans probably have free will, that we shall have life after death in an abode that closely resembles the Heaven of the great world religions, and that life, far from being insignificant, can be regarded as the ultimate cause of the very existence of the universe itself. How this works as a matter of physics is the subject of this book. The fact that all of these assertions are a consequence of physical reductionism has come as a great surprise to me also. As I said above, I never imagined when I began my career as a physicist that I would one day be writing, qua physicist, that Heaven exists, and that we shall each and every one of us enjoy life after death. But here I am, writing what my younger self would regard as scientific nonsense. Here I stand — as a physicist, I can do no other.

One naturally wonders why it is only in the last decade of the twentieth century that these ideas have appeared in physical cosmology.  {xii}  A good question. Part of the reason is that the mathematical techniques to analyze the global structure of the universe did not exist until about twenty-five years ago. But a deeper reason is that almost all physicists have ignored the future of the physical universe. There seemed to be a tacit consensus that the future is not as real as the present and the past, in spite of the fact that all fundamental physical theories advanced in the past three centuries — Newtonian mechanics, general relativity, quantum mechanics, string field theory — have insisted that there is no fundamental distinction between past, present, and future. Hence, the future is just as real as the present. Fifty years ago, the early universe was an equally taboo subject. As the Nobel-prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg put it:

. . . I think . . . the “big bang” theory did not lead to a search for the 3°K microwave background because it was extraordinarily difficult for physicists to take seriously any theory of the early universe. (I speak here in part from recollections of my own attitude before 1965.) . . . [The early universe is] so remote from us in time, the conditions of temperature and density are so unfamiliar, that we feel uncomfortable in applying our ordinary theories of statistical mechanics and nuclear physics.

This is often the way it is in physics — our mistake is not that we take our theories too seriously, but that we do not take them seriously enough. It is always hard to realize that these numbers and equations we play with at our desks have something to do with the real world. Even worse, there often seems to be a general agreement that certain phenomena are just not fit subjects for respectable theoretical and experimental effort.2

I take the far future of the universe as seriously as I do the early universe. The equations of physics tell us to take the far future seriously, and until I have experimental evidence to the contrary, I shall believe what the equations say. I hope my fellow physicists will do the same. I intend to show in this book that, by ignoring the far future, they are passing up opportunities to do physics as they previously did by ignoring the early universe.  {xiii}  It is more surprising to me that theologians have ignored the ultimate future of the cosmos. This ultimate future supposedly is the chief concern of the two main Western religions, Christianity and Islam. The central discipline for both religions should therefore be eschatology, which is the study of “last things.” Eschatology has traditionally dealt with questions of whether to expect life after death, what the afterlife will be like, and how God will provide for humankind in this afterlife.

I have been interacting with theologians and professors of religious studies for some six years now, and I have gotten the impression that, with only a few exceptions, they are quite ignorant of eschatology. Let me justify my accusation by recounting one of my recent experiences. In the fall of 1990 the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion happened to be held in New Orleans. I attended a plenary lecture by a famous Columbia University historian of the Middle Ages, who spoke on medieval beliefs about life after death. She discussed at length an analysis by St. Thomas Aquinas, the greatest of the medieval theologians, of a technical problem which arises with the idea of the resurrection of the dead: if the universal resurrection is accomplished by reassembling the original atoms which made up the dead, would it not be logically impossible for God to resurrect cannibals? Every one of their atoms belongs to someone else! The audience, several hundred theologians and religious studies professors, thought this quaint “problem” hilarious, and laughed loudly.

I didn't laugh. When I first read Aquinas’ analysis, which I came across when I first began to consider seriously the technical problems associated with a universal resurrection, I did laugh. But I soon realized that Aquinas’ cannibal example was subtly chosen to illustrate the problem of personal identity between the original person and the resurrected person; establishing this identity is the central problem to be solved in any theory of resurrection of the dead. Any scholar who has seriously thought about the resurrection of the dead would almost certainly have come across Aquinas’ analysis, be completely familiar with the cannibal example, and not laugh when it was mentioned. I infer that the typical American theologian/religious studies professor has never seriously thought about the resurrection of the dead. Eschatology has been left to the physicists.3

We physicists are by and large an extremely arrogant group of  {xiv}  scholars. Our arrogance stems from the reductionist perception that ours is the ultimate science, and from our undoubted achievements over the past few centuries. What we promise, we generally deliver. Whatever one thinks of social significance of the nuclear bomb, there is no doubt that it works. Solar eclipses occur exactly when we predict they will. As one who has spent his entire life as a physicist or as a physicist manque, I not surprisingly share this arrogance. In my previous publications on religion and physics, I have attempted to conceal this arrogance (not very successfully). In this book, however, I have not bothered, mainly because such concealment in the past has prevented me from presenting the strongest case for reductionism. And reductionism is true. Furthermore, accepting reductionism allows one to integrate fully religion and science.

Many of my fellow physicists have strongly advised me to avoid using words like “God,” “Heaven,” “free will,” and the like. My friends believe these words have been debased by philosophers and theologians into synonyms for “nonsense.” The “Omega Point” is a beautiful pure physics construct, and it should not be sullied by calling it “God.” My friends have a point, but the old theological words retain a rough coherence in the popular language, and I propose to reintroduce them as technical terms which, as the reader will see in the chapters of this book, have roughly their popular meaning. “Resurrection of the dead” has a clear and unequivocal meaning to the person in the street, and if physics predicts such an event will one day occur, it seems unreasonable to adopt a new vocabulary to describe it. Another reason for their well-intended advice is that my fellow physicists are as a general rule atheists, believing that religion is a phenomenon of a prescientific world view. They are convinced that the God hypothesis is one which was refuted long ago.

But on rare occasions we physicists find we must reconsider long-rejected theories. Copernicus was perfectly aware that he was resurrecting a theory that had been rejected by astronomers nearly two thousand years before. As his student Rheticus reported in 1539: “My teacher [Copernicus] is convinced, however, that the rejected method of the Sun's rule in the realm of nature must be revived. . . .”4 Copernicus himself in his own book, published four years after Rheticus  {xv}  wrote these words, emphasized that the ancient astronomers had considered and then rejected the Sun-centered solar system.

It is time scientists reconsider the God hypothesis. I hope in this book to persuade them to do so. The time has come to absorb theology into physics, to make Heaven as real as an electron.

Fort Walton Beach, Florida July 1993


Table of Contents


Preface    ix

Acknowledgments    xxiii

Mathematics and Conventions in This Book    xxv





Space Travel by Man and Intelligent Machine    18

Can a Machine Be Intelligent?    20

How to Build an Interstellar Robot Probe    44

A Space Traveling Species Can Ultimately Engulf and Control the Entire Universe    55



The Heat Death of Nineteenth-Century Physics    68

The Eternal Return in Philosophy, Religion and Politics    74

Physics and the Eternal Return    89


The Poincare Recurrence Theorem    90

Probabilistic Markov Recurrence    95

Quantum Mechanics Is Almost Periodic    91


No-Return Theorems in General Relativity    101

The Triumph of Progress    104



Computer Definitions of “Life,” “Person,” and “Soul”    124

What Does It Mean for Life to Exist Forever?    128

Experimental Tests of the Omega Point Theory    139

Theological Implications: Omnipresence, Omniscience, and Omnipotence    153



The Ancient Failure to Reconcile God's Omniscience and Human Free Will    159

Types of Contingency in Physics and Their Relation to Temporal Evolution    160

Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics Is Deterministic    161



The Basic Ideas of Quantum Cosmology    174

The Hartle-Hawking Boundary Condition on the Universal Wave Function    178

The Omega Point Boundary Condition for the Universal Wave Function    180

Theological Implications: The Universal Wave Function as Holy Spirit    183




The Distinction Between Determinism and Indeterminism    186

Avoiding the Conflict Between Divine Omniscience and Human Free Will    188

The Quantum Omega Point Theory Is Not Deterministic    189

How Quantum Cosmological Indeterminism Might Be Used in Human Thought    194

Why This New Type of Indeterminism Does Not Mean “Mere Chance”    198

Omega Point Boundary Condition: Agent Determinism Is an Ontological Ultimate    202



The Ontological Argument in Computer Science    205

Simulations and Emulations    206

The Algorithm for Deciding Which Concepts Exist Physically    210

Proof of the Eternal Life Postulate    212

How the Omega Point Creates the Physical Universe    214



Social Immortality as a Consequence of the Omega Point Theory    211

The Physical Mechanism of Individual Resurrection    219

Proof That an Emulation of the Entire Visible Universe Is Physically Possible    221

When Will the Dead Be Raised?    225

Why Will the Dead Be Raised?    221

The Pattern (Form) Theory Versus the Continuity Theory of Identity    221


Quantum Mechanics Supports the Pattern Identity Theory    230


The Ship of Theseus    234

Continuity Theory: A Later Emulation Is Identical to the Original Person    235



Reasons for Believing the Omega Point Will Resurrect Us to Eternal Life    245

The Existence and Nature of Hell and Purgatory    251

A Description of Life in Heaven    255

The Problem of Evil: An Omega Point Theodicy    259

Social Immortality, Personal Immortality, and Eternal Progress Are Identical    265



Immortality in the Major Non-Western Religions    270


The Afterlife in Taoism    210

Immortality in Early Hinduism    272

Is There Immortality in Buddhism?    275

Some African Views of God and Immortality    278

Heaven in Pre-Columbian America    281


Life After Death in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic Tradition    283


The Messianic Age and the World to Come in Judaism    284

Resurrection of the Dead Versus Immortality of the Soul in Christianity    290

The Definition of “Reductionism”    294

The Garden of Islam    299




Miracles and the Babbage Mechanism    308

Why I Am Not a Christian    309

The Omega Point Is (Probably) Not a Triune Deity    313

The Miracle of Transubstantiation    311

American Deism: An Experiment in Rational Christianity    321



Theology and Religion Are Branches of Science, Not Branches of Ethics    330

The Omega Point Theory and Contemporary Religions    332

The Significance of the Omega Point Theory for the Average Person    334

Notes    340

Bibliography    315

Appendix for Scientists    395


A. Introduction    395

B. The Relative Sizes of Future History and Past History    391

C. The Bekenstein Bound    401

D. The Law of Mass Action Requires Quantum Indistinguishability    412

E. Proofs of Eternal Return Theorems and the No-Return Theorem    411


1. The Poincare Recurrence Theorem    411

2. The Finite Markov Chain Recurrence Theorem    420

3. The Quantum Recurrence Theorem    424

4. The General Relativistic No-Return Theorem    421


F. The General Theory of Omega Point Spacetimes    432

G. Two Possible Counter-Examples to the Church-Turing Thesis    446

H. The Classical Omega Point Universe: Mathematical Details    449


1. Bianchi Type IX Universes    456

2. The Heat Death Overcome: Free Energy from Shear Energy    461

3. Experimental Tests: The Top Quark Mass and the Higgs Boson Mass Predictions    465


I. The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics    483

J. Quantum Wave Packets and Progress in Evolutionary Biology    489

K. Chaos in Quantum Mechanics    492

L. Quantum Mini-Superspace Model with an Omega Point    498

M. The Omega Point Boundary Condition on the Universal Wave Function    503

N. Relativistic Spacecraft    508

Index    519



Much thanks are due to many friends and colleagues who have commented on earlier versions and individual sections of this book, and who have discussed various technical points with me. I am particularly indebted to Peter C. Aichelburg, Robert Beig, Jacob Bekenstein, Frank Birtel, Brice Cassenti, David Deutsch, Willem Drees, George F. R. Ellis, Dieter Flamm, Antony Flew, James Force, Robert Forward, Martin Gardner, Thomas Gilbert, K. Hidaka, Christopher Hill, the late Sidney Hook, Bei Lok Hu, Morris Kalka, Andrei Linde, Val A. McInnes, Peter Moore, Heide Narnhofer, Joseph Needham, John Polkinghorne, Frank Quigley, Sir Martin Rees, Helmut Rumpf, Robert John Russell, Nathan Sivin, Walter Thirring, Jolanta Rokicka Tipler, John Updike, and John A. Wheeler. I learned a great deal from the Tulane students of the Omega Point Colloquium, held in the fall 1990 term at Tulane University. I should like to thank these students, and also the scholars who traveled to New Orleans to participate in the Colloquium, especially Willem Drees, Antony Flew, Philip Hefner, Ella Moravec, Hans Moravec, and Robert J. Russell.

I am especially grateful to Professor Wolfhart Pannenberg for an exchange of letters which played a crucial role in the improvement of this book. Pannenberg is a very rare exception among twentieth-century theologians: he bases his theology on eschatology, and for him “Heaven” is not just a metaphor but something that shall actually exist  {xxiv}  in the future. He is therefore one of the very few modern theologians to truly believe that physics must be intertwined with theology, and makes a serious effort to understand modern science. My very critical remarks directed against modern theologians do not apply to him. My intellectual debt to him will be apparent in what follows.

But my greatest intellectual debt, and hence my deepest debt of gratitude, goes to my colleague and coauthor (of many research papers and one book), Professor John D. Barrow, with whom I published an earlier version of the Omega Point Theory. John's seminal work on chaos in general relativity provided an essential foundation stone for the Omega Point Theory, as will be made clear in the text.

Writing the book and research on the Omega Point Theory were supported in part by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique of Belgium, the Tomalla Stiftung of Switzerland, the Tulane Honors Program, the Tulane Judeo-Christian Chair, the Fundacion Federico's Gravitation and Cosmology Project, and the Austrian Bundesministerium fur Wissenschraft und Forschung under grant number GZ 30.401/1–23/92.


and Conventions
in This Book

This is intended to be a popular book. However, I shall attempt in it to solve the most important problems of human existence by using the most up-to-date knowledge of modern mathematics and physics. The most advanced mathematics and physics are impossible to present to a popular audience in a completely rigorous way. So at first blush it appears that this cannot be a popular book.

I've tried to make it a popular book by isolating the really tough math in an Appendix for Scientists at the very end. The main body of the book will contain no formulas at all (except for E = mc2, which hopefully no one will have trouble with), so no prior deep mathematical knowledge will be required in this main part. But I'll assume in the main body of the book that the reader is familiar with scientific notation for numbers: instead of three million or 3,000,000 I'll simply write

3 × 106

The 6 is called an “exponent,” and 106 just means “1 followed by 6 zeros.” More generally, 10n means “1 followed by n zeros.” If you are a bit rusty in your algebra, recall that the symbol “n” represents any number. Thus, 3 × 106 means “three multiplied by 1 followed by 6 zeros,” or 3 million. Finally, 3 × 10–6 means “three multiplied by 1 over  {xxvi}  one million.” I shall find it necessary to deal with numbers that are so large they must be expressed as double exponentials, for example, 10106. This means “1 followed by 106 zeros (one million zeros).” The largest number I shall use is 1010123, which is “1 followed by 10123 zeros.”

I shall generally use metric system units. The units for mass are the gram, which is roughly 1/30 of an ounce, and the kilogram, which is roughly two pounds. The units for length are the meter, which is roughly a yard, and the kilometer, which is roughly half a mile.

Cosmology will play a central role in this book, so I shall assume that my reader has some knowledge of distances in astronomy. The basic unit is the light-year, defined to be the distance light can travel in a year. Since light travels 3 × 108 meters per second, a light-year is 9.46 × 1015 meters. A light-year is huge by human standards: it's 63,000 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. But really large astronomical distances are usually given not in light-years, but in parsecs. A parsec is 3.26 light-years. I shall use the terms 1 kiloparsec = 1 thousand parsecs; 1 megaparsec = 1 million parsecs; 1 gigaparsec = 1 billion parsecs; and 1 teraparsec = 1 trillion parsecs. The center of our Galaxy is 10 kiloparsecs away from us. The nearest large galaxy, the Great Nebula in Andromeda, is about 1 megaparsec away. The edge of the visible universe is about 3 gigaparsecs away, and I predict that the other side of the universe is currently between 1 and 10 teraparsecs away.

In the main part of the book I'll describe in rough outline the basic ideas in the Appendix for Scientists, so anyone willing to do some hard thinking and with a high school education should be able to understand the main part.

I'll use three of the many different English translations of the Bible: KJV stands for King James Version, RSV stands for Revised Standard Version, and NEB means New English Bible.



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Appendix for Scientists



Italicized page numbers refer to figures

Abortion, 331

Accidents, notion of, 318, 319

Aetemitas duration, 134, 155, 219

African religions, afterlife in, 27881

Afterlife, xi, 1516

      in African religions, 27881

      in Buddhism, 27578

      in Christianity, 258, 29094

      comparison of world religions and Omega Point Theory, 27094, 299304

      in Hinduism, 27274

      in Islam, 299304

      in Judaism, 28490

      in Native American religions, 28183

      in Omega Point Theory Heaven, 254, 25559

      redemptive features (Hell and Purgatory), 25155

      in Taoism, 27072

Agassiz, Louis, 122

Age of Reason, The (Paine), 322

Algorithm, defined, 25

Allen, Ethan, 321, 32223

All Religions Are True (Gandhi), 336

Alpher, Ralph, 72

Altruism, 24547, 253

Anchor Bible, 3067

Angels, 15657, 35759

Anger of God, The (Lactantius), 260

Animism, 88

Anthropic Cosmological Principle, The (Tipler and Barrow), 210

Antichrist, The (Nietzsche), 81

Antimatter rockets, 5354, 51215

Aquinas, St. Thomas, 6, 127, 293

      on duration, 134

      as physicist, 329

      on Problem of Evil, 26061, 265

      on resurrection of the dead, xiii, 236

Aristarchus of Samos, 5, 104

Aristode, 89, 75, 127, 289, 292

Arithmetic, full theory of, 2425, 19294

Arrhenius, Svante, 90

Arrow Impossibility Theorem, 201

Artificial intelligence. See Intelligent machines

Atheism, xiv, 910, 7980, 26061, 305

Augustine, St., 6, 76, 215, 26162, 265

Axelrod, Robert, 245, 246

Ayala, Francisco, 294, 296

Aztec people, 281

Babbage, Charles, 309

Babylonians, 7475

Bachwa people, 279

Baronio, Cesare Cardinal, 8

Barrow, John D., x, 63, 125, 210

Barth, Christian Gottlieb, 255

Barth, Karl, 14, 291

Baumler, Alfred, 83

Beatific vision, 245

Becker, Gary, 246

Bekenstein, Jacob, 31

Bekenstein Bound, 239, 295, 296, 314, 363, 40711, 45253, 462

      emulation of universe and, 22123

      intelligent machines and, 3032

Bergson, Henri, 9

Berkeley, George, 21112

Bemal, John Desmond, 3,16,10810, 116

Beshat, the, 290

“Best of all possible worlds” viewpoint, 26263


Big Bang, xii, 72, 78, 101, 141, 214

Big Crunch, 101, 141, 355, 404, 441

Billiard ball computer, 37, 446

Biot, Jean–Baptiste, 312

Black holes, 36364, 40911, 455, 458, 47879

Blindness, 243

Blind Watchmaker, The (Dawkins), 12526

Bloch, Ernst, 5

Boesiger, Ernest, 112

Boethius, 134, 158, 159

Boltzmann, Ludwig, 94, 95

Boswell, James, 247

Brain, 33, 4041

      decision making and, 19698, 201

      information and, 2223

      memories and, 237

Brush, Stephen, 73

Buddha in the Robot, The (Mori), 88

Buddhism, 284

      afterlife in, 27578

      intelligent machines and, 88

Cairns–Smith, A. G., 12425

Calvin, John, 318

Camus, Albert, 82

Cannibalism, xiii, 236

Canon of the Great Peace, 76

Cauchy hypersurface, 159

C–boundary, 13132, 132, 154

      future c–boundary of universe as single point (Omega Point), 114, 14246, 143, 145, 43235

Celsus, 29293, 316

Chance. See Randomness

Chance and Necessity (Monod), 199

Chaos, x–xi, 3, 49397

      biosphere's control of universe and, 5965

      determinism and, 18990

      Quantum Recurrence Theorem and, 97, 99, 42427, 492

      unstable chaotic motion, 5963

China, 7677, 27072

Chinese Room Experiment, 3843


      afterlife in, 258, 29094

      Deist movement, 32127

      displacement of other religions, 33233

      Eternal Return doctrine and, 76, 135

      “future being” view of God, 45

      Luke, Book of, 3068

      membership of, 28384

      miracles and, 3089

      Omega Point Theory and, 16, 30527

      personal God of, 34, 15556, 32627

      prayer and, 33738

      Problem of Evil and, 26062, 265

      Real Presence, doctrine of the, 31721

      resurrection of Jesus, 3068, 30913, 320

      “time between death and resurrection” issue, 22627

      transubstantiation, 31821, 334

      triune deity issue, 31317

      universal salvation and, 25455, 303, 31617

Church–Turing Thesis, 38, 44648

City of God, The (Augustine), 76

Classical paths, 177, 182

Clement, St., 135

Coe, Michael, 282

Colonization of universe, 1819

      controlling the universe, 5965, 144, 154

      cost concerns, 44

      Earth, use of, 57

      energy for, 64

      engulfing the universe, 5559, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 14445, 154

      Galaxy–wide coverage, 4546, 47

      self–sustaining colonies, 46, 5455

      time requirements, 55

      See also Robot space probes

Comet Halley Mission, proposed, 49

Comparative Advantage, Theory of, 43

Compatabilism, 186, 201

Complexity, 11819, 123

Computer metaphysics, 2057. See also Emulations

Computers. See Intelligent machines

Confucianism, 271

Conservation laws, 161

Consolation of Philosophy (Boethius), 134, 158

Constraint equations, 162 Contingency

      in general relativity, 16167

      in Newtonian physics, 16061

      in quantum mechanics, 16773

Continuity identity theory, 22829

      emulations and, 23539

Conway, John, 37

Copenhagen Interpretation, 167, 16869

Copernicus, Nicolaus, xiv–xv, 6, 342, 360, 449

Cosmic background radiation, 72, 151, 15253, 403, 410, 451, 45659, 479

Cosmological Constant, 150, 46566

Crescas, Hasdai ben Abraham, 290  {521} 

Cullmann, Oscar, 291, 293

Cyberspace, 1089, 220

Damascus Document, 284

Dante, 16

Darwin, Charles, 6869

Dashti, 'Ali, 304

Davies, P. C. W., 31

Dawkins, Richard, 12526

Dead Sea Scrolls, 284

Decision-making process, 194202

Decline of the West, The (Spengler), 81

Deism, 203, 32127

Delusion, collective, 31012

Dennett, Daniel C, 199

Density parameter. See universe

Determinism, 75, 15960, 483

      chaos and, 18990

      defining characteristics, 187

      No–Return Theorem and, 103

      time and, 188

      See also Contingency

DeWitt, Bryce, 170

Dialectics of Nature (Engels), 1067

“Dilemma of Determinism,” (James), 187

Dirac, Paul, 3, 11

Divine Comedy, The (Dante), 16

DNA programs, 29

Drake, Frank D., 31011

Dreams of a Final Theory (Weinberg), 171, 33839

Drexler, K. Eric, 51

Duhem, Pierre, 7172

Dyson, Freeman, 3, 57, 13940

      Eternal Life Postulate and, 108, 11619


      chaos on Earth's orbit, 63

      colonization of universe, used for, 57

      physical destruction of, 1819

      virtual reality, transformation to, 1089

Eaton, Daniel, 322

Ecce Homo (Nietzsche), 81

Eccles,John, 197

Eddington, Arthur, 73

Einstein, Albert, 146

Einstein static universe, 103

Emanationism, 214 — 15

Emperor's New Mind, The (Penrose), 27

Emulations, 14, 51516

      characteristics of, 2067

      of computers by computers, 36, 208, 213

      continuity identity theory and, 23539

      “existence” issue, 207, 210

      free will and, 223

      Identity of Indiscernibles, 2078, 211

      termination of, 21011

      of universe, 2089, 22125

      See also Resurrection of the dead

Enchiridion (Augustine), 265

Engels, Friedrich, 105, 1067

Enneads (Plotinus), 215

Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, An (Hume), 78, 310

Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, An (Hume), 238

Entropy, 67, 71, 9495

Epicurus, 260

EQ frequency distributions, 12022

Eschatology, xiii, 4

Eternal Life Postulate, 1112, 66, 11314, 13233, 45051

      in closed and open universes, 11618

      complexity of life and, 11819

      computer capacity for, 24749

      conditions necessary for eternal life, 13235

      Dyson's contributions, 108, 11619

      eternal progress and, 26568

      “life,” definition of, 12427

      love as motivation for granting of eternal life, 14, 24547, 253

      mathematics of, 116

      physical feasibility of eternal life, 13538

      proof of, 21213

      “soul,” definition of, 12728

      See also Afterlife

Eternal progress, 217

      antiprogressive argument, 11922

      Bernal's views on, 10810

      eternal life and, 26568

      evolutionary biology and, 11923, 48991

      extinction of Homo sapiens and, 218

      God and, 268

      gravity and, 106

      nineteenth–century views on, 1057

      “progress,” meaning of, 1045

Eternal Return doctrine, 34

      in ancient cultures, 7476

      Christianity and, 76, 135

      cyclic notion of time and, 7476

      Heidegger's views on, 79, 8386

      linear notion of time and, 7677

      meaning in life and, 8182

      in medieval period, 7677

      Nietzsche's views on, 7781, 82

      palingenesia (reappearance of same people in each cycle), 7576  {522} 

Eternal Return doctrine (cont.)

      physics–based variations, 67, 89101

      political consequences, 8286

      religious–philosophical implicatoins, 7981

      “repeating” view of future, 6667, 74

      symbol of, 83

      Tipler's rejection of, 83, 8689

Event horizons, 140, 142, 40911, 456, 458, 47879

Everett, Hugh, 167


      Omega Point's response to, 25155

      Problem of Evil, 13, 25965

Evolutionary biology, 910, 68

      eternal progress and, 11923

      Modern Synthesis, 9, 199

      randomness and, 2930, 199

      vitalist approach to, 11013

Evolution equations, 161

“Existence,” definition of, 210, 21112

Existence of universe

      computer science and, 20511

      Eternal Life Postulate and, 21213

      number of existing universes, 210

      Omega Point Theory and, 21112

      ontological/cosmological argument, 205

Experimental Test. See Omega Point Theory, testable predictions of

Extinctions, 30, 104

Homo sapiens and, 21718

Fan Chen, 271

Faraday, Michael, 146

Fawell, Harris, 335

Fechner–Weber Law, 257

Feynman, Richard, 170, 203, 36162

Finite state machines, 3134

First Principles (Spencer), 105

First Three Minutes, The (Weinberg), 6970

Fitzmyer, Joseph, 307

Flamm, Dieter, 22

Flat universe, 11617

Flew, Antony, 22829, 235, 237, 23839, 293, 305, 309

Foliation of co–dimension one, 18081, 43840, 451

Forward, Robert, 49, 5354

Four–Manifold Non–Classification Theorem, 19091

France, 112

Franklin, Benjamin, 321, 32325

Free will, xi, 2, 7, 13

      conditions for, 2012

      decision–making process and, 194202

      emulations and, 223

      God's omniscience and, 15960, 188

      Many–Worlds Interpretation and, 173, 203

      Omega Point Boundary Condition and, 18687, 2024

      randomness and, 19899

      schools of thought on, 18687

      See also Determinism; Indeterminism

Frege, Gottlob, 205

Friedman, David, 246

Friedmann universe, 140, 141, 142, 143, 397405

Future–endless worldliness, 131

Future evolution of universe, x–xi, xii

      assumptons about, 23, 11

      important events, 5657

      longevity issue, 10

Galileo, 6, 8, 229, 331

Game of Life, 3738

Game theory, 195, 199, 24547, 25154

Gandhi, Mohandas K., 274, 276, 278, 336

Gardner, Martin, 253

Gell-Mann, Murray, 17071

General relativity, ix, 12829, 131, 174

      contingency in, 16167

      No–Return Theorem, 1013, 42731

      See also Spacetime

Genetic algorithms, 2930

Geology, 90

Germ theory of disease, 32829

Gibbs, J. Willard, 23031, 232

Gibbs Paradox, 23031

Gifford, Adam, 334

Glashow, Sheldon, 89, 146

Global general relativity, ix

Gnosticism, 3, 13

Gödel, Kurt, 24, 192

Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem, 13, 2426, 31, 191, 192, 194

Gould, Stephen J., 12022

Gravity, 63, 1013, 106, 338

Great Chain of Being, 216, 218

Greece, ancient, 7576

Guth, Alan, 152

Habermas, Gary, 309

Haddad, Yvonne Y., 303

Haldane, J. B. S., 3, 107, 108, 116

Halting Problem, 2526, 38, 194, 44648

Hand-simulation of computer programs, 3843

Harrison-Zel'dovich power spectrum, 151

Hartle, James B., 178, 18182  {523} 

Hartle-Hawking boundary condition, 17880, 18182, 189

Hawking, Stephen, ix, 5, 170, 178

Hayek, Friedrich, 172, 267

Heat Death doctrine, 66, 90, 109, 111

      entropy and, 67, 46163

      fallacies of, 7071

      optimistic views about, 73

      Poincare Recurrence Theorem and, 9495

      scientists' thoughts on, 6870

      short–run views about, 70

Heaven. See Afterlife

Heidegger, Martin, 79, 8386

Heisenberg, Werner, 177

Heliocentric theory of solar system, xiv–xv, 56, 1045

Hell, 1516, 251, 253, 254

Helmholtz, Hermann von, 67

Herman, Robert, 72

Heuristic programming, 195, 196

Hick, John, 261, 26364, 265

Higgs boson, 105, 14647, 150, 46574

Higgs field, 150

Hilbert, David, 248

Hilbert's Hotel problem, 24849

Hillis, Danny, 23

Himmelfarb, Gertrude, 105

Hinduism, 284

      afterlife in, 27274

Historicity, 8384

Hider, Adolf, 87

Hobbs, Thomas, 234

Hofstadter, Douglas R., 199

Holocaust, 260, 263

Holten, Gerald, 81

Holy Spirit, 1314, 18385, 399

Hubble's constant, 55, 149, 464, 480

Human beings as machines, xi, 12, 3132, 516

Human importance, claim of, 250

Human race

      collective knowledge of, 41

      extinction of, 21718

Hume, David, 78, 238, 247, 310

Hypnosis, 203

Hyppolite, Jean, 115

Identity. See Continuity identity theory: Pattern identity theory

Identity of Indiscernibles, 2078, 211

Immortality, 7, 8. See also Afterlife; Eternal Life Postulate

Indeterminism, 13, 159

      decision–making process and, 194202

      defining characteristics, 187

      epistemological indeterminism, 189

      of Omega Point Theory, 18994

      ontological indeterminism, 189

India, ancient, 75

Inertia, principle of, 161

Infinite state machines, 32. See also Turing machines

Inflation Model, 152, 153, 45156, 465

Information cost, 195

Information storage and processing, 113

      infinite amount of future storage and processing, 13538

      by intelligent machines, 2224

      life and, 12427

      monotone increase of, 26567, 268

      soul and, 12728

      upper bound to rate of, 22223

Initial data space, 161

Intelligent machines, 20

      Bekenstein Bound and, 3032

      as beneficial to humanity, 4344

      Chinese Room Experiment and, 3843

      feasibility of constructing, 2243

      finite state and infinite state machines, 3134, 35, 3638

      human's hostility toward, 8688

      information processing capacity, 2224

      information storage capacity, 22

      as next stage of intelligent life, 218

      parallel machines, 41

      Penrose's views on, 24, 2632

      as persons, 21, 8688

      semantics and, 4243

      test for determining whether a computer

      is intelligent, 2021

      See also Robot space probes

Introduction to Metaphysics (Heidegger), 84

Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, 265

Islam afterlife in, 299304

      displacement of other religions, 333

      membership of, 28384

      universal salvation and, 3024

Islam, Jamal, 116

Isotropy Problem, 15253

James, William, 13, 187, 189, 198

Japan, 8788

Jaspers, Karl, 81

Jeans, James, 73

Jefferson, Thomas, 32122, 32526

Jerison, Harry J., 121

Jerome, St., 291  {524} 

Jesus Christ, 4, 226

      Jefferson's views on, 325

      knowledge about God, 316

      resurrection of, 244, 3068, 30913, 320

Josephus, 308


      afterlife in, 28490

      “future being” view of God, 45

      membership of, 28384

Julian of Norwich, Mother, 265

Kant, Immanuel, 7, 203, 205, 210

Kelvin, Baron, 90

Kenny, Anthony, 2627, 329

Kepler, Johannes, 170

Kolmogorov complexity, 295, 296

Krugman, Paul, 30

Kuhn, Thomas, 8889

Kting, Hans, 5, 316

Lactantius, Lucius, 260

Lang, Bernhard, 258

Languages, 85

Laplace, Pierre–Simon, 313

Laser sail propulsion, 4950, 52

Law of Mass Action, 23233, 41216

Leibniz, G. W. von, 207, 261

Levels of implementation, 3637, 208, 213

Libertarianism, 18687, 201

Libet, B., 201

Life complexity of, 11819, 123

      as information processing, 12427

      universal wave function as source of, 18385

      See also Eternal Life Postulate

Life's movement into cosmos at large. See Colonization of universe

Light cones, future and past, 12829, 130, 131

Light–year, defined, xxvi

Linde, Andrei, 328, 45156

Liouville's Theorem, 93, 41719

Local gauge theory, 146

Locke, John, 228

Lodagaa people, 280

Longuet–Higgins, Christopher, 2627

Lovejoy, Arthur O., 216

Lowith, Karl, 83

Lozi people, 279

Lucas, John, 2627

Luke, Book of, 3068

Lun Heng (Wang), 271

Luther, Martin, 6, 318, 342 (n. 13)

Mach, Ernst, 72

Maimonides, 256, 28889

Manifold, defined, 16162

Mann, Christopher S., 307

Many–Worlds Interpretation, 16768, 111, 17677, 180, 210, 48388

      Cat Experiment and, 169

      central claim of, 175, 488

      free will and, 173,203

      Omega Point Theory and, 16970

      Problem of Evil and, 263

      truth of, 17073 Maritain, Jacques, 31819

Markov Recurrence Theorem, 9597, 103, 42024

Marx, Karl, 106

Mass action. See Law of Mass action

Mathematics as universal language, 85

Matter–antimatter annihilation, 5354, 512

Maximal spacetime, 16467, 165, 166

Maxwell, James Clerk, 23031

Maya people, 28182

Mayr, Ernst, 112, 298

Mbiti, John S., 279

McCarthy, John, 27

McDannell, Colleen, 258

NcNeill, William H., 333

Medawar, Peter, 111, 113

Memory, 176, 237

      resurrection of the dead and, 24445

Meteor theory, 312, 313

Microeconomics, 24547

Milne, Edward A., 1078

Mind Children (Moravec), 225

Minkowski Diagrams, 128, 129

Minsky, Marvin, 201

Miracles, 3089

Misner, Charles, 142, 144, 152

Mohammed, 226, 299, 300, 301, 304

Monod, Jacques, 199

Moon, jumping to the, 3940

Morality, 33032

Moravec, Hans, 17, 23, 24, 22526

Morgenstern, Oskar, 195, 251

Mori, Masahiro, 88

Morrison, Philip, 312

Munck, Johannes, 307

Murray, John, 90

Nanotechnology, 49, 51, 52, 54

National Academy of Sciences, 5

Native Americans afterlife of, 28183

      Christianity, shift to, 33233  {525} 

Nazism, 8386, 260

Nebular Hypothesis, 313

Needham, Joseph, 76, 77, 270

Newton, Isaac, 89, 16364, 226

Nickelsburg, George W. E., 292

Nietzsche, Friedrich, 7781, 82, 83, 88

Nihilism, 79

Nirvana, 27577

Nisbet, Robert, 105

No Clone Theorem, 224, 235

Nonsatiation, principle of, 257, 258

Noosphere, 113

No–Return Theorem, 1013, 42731

Nowak, Martin A., 245

Nozick, Robert, 17

N–rays delusion, 312

“Omega Point,” origin of term, 110, 113

Omega Point Boundary Condition free will and, 18687, 2024

      Holy Spirit and, 1314, 18385

      for universal wave function, 18185, 184

Omega Point Theory, xiv, 1, 8, 9, 71, 93, 106

      bounded system of, 11415

      Christianity and, 16, 30527

      closed universe and, 14042

      completion of spacetime, 12, 144, 15455

      creation of universe, 21416

      density contrast of universe and, 15153

      density of particle states and, 146

      density parameter of universe and, 14951

      existence of universe and, 21112

      future c–boundary of universe as single point (Omega Point), 114, 14246, 143, 145

      “God” status of Omega Point, 1213, 15358

      indeterminism of, 18994

      Many–Worlds Interpretation and, 16970

      mass of subatomic particles and, 14649

      meaning in life and, 82

      miracles and, 3089

      religion and, 33739

      Second Law of Thermodynamics and, 7273

      Teilhard's contributions, 110, 11316

      testable predictions of, 14053

      theism of, 203 theodicy of, 26165

      Tipler's personal views on, 305

      triune deity issue, 31317

      universal history included in Omega Point, 15455, 15758

      See also Afterlife; Eternal Life Postulate: Resurrection of the dead

Omnipotence, 154, 259, 264

Omnipresence, 154

Omniscience, 154, 155, 15960, 188, 259

O'Neill, Gerard, 5455

O'Neill colonies, 46, 5455

On the Immortality of the Soul (Hume), 247

Open universe, 116, 119

Origen, 6, 135, 254, 338

Origin of Species (Darwin), 68

Osborn, Henry, 9

Paine, Thomas, 321, 322

Pali Canon (Buddhist text), 275

Palingenesia, 7576

Pannenberg, Wolfhart, 4, 13, 1415, 154, 18385, 188, 219, 293, 303, 315

Parallel machines, 41

Parrinder, Geoffrey, 279

Parsec, defined, xxvi

Particle accelerators, 14748, 33536

Pasteur, Louis, 8

Pattern identity theory, 22729

      body's replacement of atoms and, 23637

      Franklin's belief in, 32425

      Jewish eschatology and, 28687

      quantum mechanics and, 23035

      “reproduction” of a human being, 23940

      Ship of Theseus problem and, 23435

Paul, St., 4, 6, 24, 214, 242, 308, 309

Paul VI, Pope, 320

Pelikan, Jaroslav, 334

Penrose, Roger, ix, 5, 40, 107, 169, 170, 196, 197, 221

      on c–boundary, 131

      on intelligent machines, 24, 2632

Penrose Diagrams, 140, 141, 142, 143, 145

Periodic systems, 9899

Personality, components of, 199201

Peter, St., 254

Pets, resurrection of, 250

Phase paths, 18182

Phase space, 9194, 100, 1012, 222

Phenomenon of Man, The (Teilhard), 11016

Philosophy of Jesus, The (Jefferson), 325  {526} 

Physics, 5

      contingency in, 16061

      laws of, 177

      morality and, 33032

      objectivity of, 8889

      theology as branch of, 32829

      See also General relativity; Quantum mechanics

Pipes, Daniel, 304

Planck, Max, 95

Planck's constant, 100

Plato, 7576, 158, 215, 29091

Plotinus, 215

Plutarch, 234

Pluto Fast Flyby Mission, 48

Poincare, Henri, 90

Poincare Recurrence Theorem, 9095, 97, 101, 103, 41920

Polkinghome, John, 89, 29394, 29798

Popol Vuh (Mayan text), 28182

Positivism, 7172

Prayer, 33738

Presburger arithmetic, 193

Principle of Plenitude, 216

Problem of Evil, 13, 25965

Progress. See Eternal progress

Progressive movement, 1057

Project Daedalus, 52

Prophets, 31516

Proyine, William B., 910

Purgatory, 1516,251,254

Quantum cosmology, 498507

      basic ideas of, 17478

      Hartle–Hawking boundary condition and, 17880

Quantum mechanics, 95

      as almost periodic, 97101

      Bekenstein Bound and, 31, 222

      contingency in, 16773

      discreteness of, 99100

      identity of systems, 23035

      See also Many–Worlds Interpretation

Quantum nonlocality, 22425

Quantum Recurrence Theorem, 97101, 103, 42427

Quantum states, replication of, 22125

Qur'an (Islamic text), 299302, 304

Racism Eternal Return and, 8081, 83, 8485

      intelligent machines and, 8687

Radial energy, 11113, 185

Rahner, Karl, 15

Rahula, Walpola, 27677

Randomness, 2930

      decision making and, 194202

      free will and, 19899

Rankine, WilHam J. M., 90

Raub, L. David, 170

Raup, David, 30, 123

Reality, ultimate, 19192, 208, 213

Real Presence, doctrine of the, 31721

Reason, the Only Oracle of Man (Allen), 32223

Recurrence. See Markov Recurrence Theorem; Poincare Recurrence Theorem; Quantum Recurrence Theorem

Reductionism, xi, xiv, 294

      epistemological, 29597

      methodological, 297

      ontological, 29495, 29799

Reincarnation, 272, 275, 330

Relativity. See General relativity


      morality and, 33032

      Omega Point Theory and, 33739

      physics and, 32829

      revelation and, 33637

      science and, 3, 510, 17, 33334

      See also specific religions

Replica Objection, 22829, 237, 23839

Resurrection of Jesus, 244, 3068, 30913, 320

Resurrection of the dead, xiv, 1, 1415, 100

      background environment for resurrected person, 24142

      body of resurrected person, 15, 24244

      cannibal example, xiii, 236

      emulation as means of resurrection, 14, 21920

      identity issue, xiii, 22740

      memory and, 24445

      nonhuman creatures and, 24950

      people from other phase trajectories and, 22324

      “perfection” of finite natures, 24445

      point in time when resurrection occurs, 22526

      quantum states, replication of, 22125

      “time between death and resurrection” issue, 22627

      See also Afterlife; Eternal Life Postulate

Revelation, 33637

Rheticus, xiv

Rig Veda (Hindu text), 27273

Ritter, Don, 33536

Robot space probes, 19, 50817

      collison concerns, 51  {527} 

      cost of, 5051,52, 54, 515

      feasibility of, 54

      mass of, 4850, 51,514

      payload of, 45, 51516

      propulsion system, 4950, 5254, 512

      self–reproduction by, 4445, 51, 5455

      solar system escape velocity, 48

      speed of, 5152, 512

      synthesizing of life, 46, 48

      time concerns, 51 — 52, 515

Rochester Roundabout (Polkinghorne), 89

Rosenberg, Alfred, 83

Rotten Kid Theorem, 253

Russell Bertrand, 69, 70, 248

Russell, Robert, 160

Sabellius, 313

Sagan, Carl, 8687

Schillebeeckx, Edward, 291, 292, 316, 320

Schrödinger, Erwin, 168

Schrödinger equation, 191

Schrödinger's Cat Experiment, 16869

Schwartz, Jacob, 22, 23

Schweitzer, Albert, 4

Science–religion relationship, 3, 510, 17, 33334

Searle, John, 24, 3839, 41, 42

Second Law of Thermodynamics, 90, 94, 135, 295, 297, 44142, 46163, 47678

      application to universe as whole, 72

      Heat Death doctrine and, 67

      Omega Point Theory and, 7273

Selfish Gene, The (Dawkins), 126

Semantics, 4243

Sex in afterlife, 25657

Sheehan, Thomas, 10

Shen Kua, 77

Shen Mich Lun (Fan), 271

Shen Yo, 27172

Shintoism, 88

Ship of Theseus problem, 23435

Sigmund, Karl, 245

Simpson, George Gaylord, 111

Simulations, 2067. See also Emulations

Sisyphus, myth of, 8182

Smith, Jane I., 303

Smith, John Maynard, 30, 122

Soul, 12

      in Christian eschatology, 29094

      Eternal Life Postulate and, 12728

      “immorality” of, 237

      in Jewish eschatology, 28788

      resurrection and, 22627, 235

Space probes. See Robot space probes

Spacetime, 12829, 129, 131, 16164

      distinction between space and time, 180

      maximal spacetime, 16467, 165, 166

      Omega Point and, 12, 114, 15455

Spencer, Herbert, 1056

Spengler, Oswald, 81

Stable motion, 6061

Standard Model of particle physics, 8889, 46775

Stcherbatsky, Theodosius, 27576

Stewart, Balfour, 73

Stoics, 75

String field theory, 179

Strong Al Postulate. See Intelligent machines

Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The (Kuhn), 88

Substance, notion of, 31819

Suicide, 82

Summa Contra Gentiles (Aquinas), 236

Summa Theologica (Aquinas), 26061, 265

Synaptic exocytosis, 19697

Taha, Mahmoud Mohamed, 304

Tait, P. G., 73, 90

Talmud (Jewish text), 28588, 303

Taoism, 76, 291

      afterlife in, 27072

Tarski, Alfred, 192

Taub, Abraham, 136

Taub universes, 13638, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 462

Technology, control of, 84, 8586

Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre, 9, 11016, 185

Teissier, Georges, 112

Tertullian, 242

Theism, 203

Theodicies, 26165

Theory of Everything, 209

Thermodynamics, 90, 135, 230, 231, 233, 295. See also Second Law of Thermodynamics

Tic–tac–toe, 252, 254

Tillich, Paul, 3, 4, 5, 188

Timaeus (Plato), 215


      conformal time, 398

      cyclic notion of, 7476, 8990

      determinism and, 188

      duration, types of, 134

      entronic time, 4023, 461

      linear notion of, 7677, 8990

      proper time, 398

      quantum cosmology and, 17576  {528} 

      robot space probes and, 5152

      subjective time, 266, 450, 461

      York time, 102, 440

      See also Spacetime

Time Without End (Dyson), 116

Topologoy change, 179, 198

Topology of universe. See Universe, topology of

Top quark, 14647, 148, 150, 46875

Tbynbee, Arnold. 81

Trade theory, 30, 43

Tragic Sense of Life, The (Unamuno), 8

Transubstantiation, 31821, 334

Tristram Shandy paradox, 248

Triune deity issue, 31317

Tuchman, Barbara, 258

Tug, Salih, 303

Tung Ku, 77

Turing, Alan, 2021, 25, 194, 209

Turing machines, 34, 35, 3638, 127, 446

Turing Test, 2021

Chinese Room Experiment and, 3843

Tyndall, John, 329

UFOs, 31011

Unamuno, Miguel de, 8

Uncertainty principle, 222, 407

Universal Boundary Condition, 299

Universal constructors, 4445

Universal Turing machine, 3638

Universal wave function

      equation for, nonexistence of, 191

      Hartle–Hawking boundary condition and, 17880

      as Holy Spirit, 1314, 18385

      Omega Point Boundary Condition and, 18185, 184, 500, 5037


      closed universe of Omega Point Theory, 14042

      collapse of, 6365, 11718, 13638, 131, 138, 139, 144, 456

      created by Omega Point, 21416

      density contrast, 15153, 45658

      density parameter, 14951, 399, 46364

      early universe, xii

      “edge” of visible universe, 15152

      emulation of, 2089, 22125

      engulfed and controlled by biosphere, 5565, 59, 60, 61, 62, 14445, 154

      finite time of existence, 78, 400

      inhomogeneities in, 151

      maximum expansion, size at, 149, 402

      models of, 11617,39798

      singularities, 101, 102, 4045

      topology of, 397, 435, 456, 480 (n. 21)

      visible universe, x

      See also Existence of universe; Future evolution of universe

Unseen Universe, The (Stewart and Tait), 73

Updike, John, 236

Virtual machines, 36, 208, 213

Virtual reality, 1089, 208, 220

Vitalism, 11013

Von Neumann, John, 45, 135, 195, 251

Von Neumann probes. See Robot space probes

Voyager spacecraft, 48

Wald, Abraham, 195

Wang Ch'ung, 271

Warao people, 282

Washington, George, 322, 326

Wave function

      quantum cosmology and, 17475, 17778

      Quantum Recurrence Theorem and, 9799, 100

      See also Universal wave function

Wave function reduction, 16869

Wealth, exponentially increasing, 26768

Weber, Max, 80

Weinberg, Steven, xii, 10, 89, 146, 171, 329, 335, 33839

      on Heat Death doctrine, 6970

      on ontological reductionism, 298, 299

Wheeler, John A., 169

Wheeler–DeWitt equation, 174, 17778

Wigner, Eugene, 101, 169

Wilbert, Johannes, 282

Will to Power, The (Nietzsche), 81

Wolfson, Harry, 292, 328

World, the Flesh, and the Devil, The (Bernal), 10810

Worldlines, 128, 129, 129, 130, 131

York, James, 102

Yoruba people, 280

Zakkai, Jochanan ben, 288, 292

Zero-sum finite dual game with perfect information, 25153

Zwingli, Huldrych, 318

About the Author

Frank J. Tipler is Professor of Mathematical Physics at Tulane University. He is the co–author, with John D. Barrow, of the universally praised The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. Dr. Tipler's numerous articles have appeared in such journals as Nature, Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, The Astrophysical Journal, and Journal of Mathematical Physics. He divides his time between Fort Walton Beach, Florida, and New Orleans, Louisiana.